To All Family, divorce, children protection courts, Judges, Arbitrators, Lawyers, Attorneys, advocates, Barristers, Solicitors & Legal consultants who concern on Child rights please find below the articles of child rights law in UAE to discuss or review or to quote for your use:
Federal Law No. 3 of 2016
Issued on 08/03/2016
Corresponding to 28 Jumada Al-Awwal 1437 H.
ON CHILD RIGHTS (WADEEMA’S LAW) We, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, President of the United Arab Emirates,
After perusal of the Constitution,
Federal Law No. (1) of 1972 on the Competencies of the Ministries and Powers of the Ministers, and its amendments;
Federal Law No. (11) of 1972 on Compulsory Education;
Federal Law No. (17) of 1972 on Nationality and Passports, and its amendments;
Federal Law No. (9) of 1976 on Delinquent and Vagrant Juveniles;
Federal Law No. (8) of 1980 regulating Labour Relations, and its amendments;
Federal Law No. (5) of 1983 on Nurseries;
Federal Law No. (5) of 1985 promulgating the Civil Transactions Law, and its amendments;
Federal Law No. (3) of 1987 promulgating the Penal Code, and its amendments;
Federal Law No. (35) of 1992 promulgating the Criminal Procedure Law, and its amendments;
Federal Law No. (43) of 1992 regulating Penal Institutions;
Federal Law No. (14) of 1995 regarding fighting narcotics and psychotropic substances, and its amendments;
Federal Law No. (21) of 1995 on traffic, and its amendments;
Federal Law No. (3) of 1996 on the jurisdiction of Sharia’a Courts to hear some criminal cases;
Federal Law No. (2) of 2001 on Social Security;
Federal Law No. (28) of 2001 on the establishment of Emirates Authority for Standardisation and Metrology, and its amendments;
Federal Law No. (7) of 2002 on copyrights and neighbouring rights, and its amendments;
Federal Decree-Law No. (1) of 2003 on the establishment of the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood;
Federal Decree-Law No. (3) of 2003 on the Regulation of Telecommunication Sector, and its amendments;
Federal Law No. (28) of 2005 on Personal Status;
Federal Law No. (29) of 2006 on the Rights of People with Special Needs, and its amendments;
Federal Law No. (51) of 2006 on combating human trafficking crimes, and its amendments;
Federal Decree-Law No. (11) of 2008 on Human Resources in the Federal Government, and its amendments;
Federal Law No. (15) of 2009 on Tobacco Control;
Federal Law No. (18) of 2009 on the Registration of Births and Deaths;
Federal Law No. (1) of 2012 on the Custody of Children of Unknown Parentage;
Federal Decree-Law No. (5) of 2012 on Combating Cyber-crimes;
Federal Decree-Law No. (5) of 2013 on Weapons, Ammunition, Explosives and Military Equipment;
And based on the proposal of the Minister of Social Affairs, the approval of the Council of Ministers and the Federal National Council and the ratification of the Federal Supreme Council,
Issued the following Law:
Article 1 – Definitions
In the implementation of the provisions of this Law, the following words and expressions shall have the meanings assigned against each unless the context requires otherwise:
State: The United Arab Emirates.
Ministry: Ministry of Social Affairs.
Minister: Minister of Social Affairs.
Competent Authorities: Federal authorities concerned with the children’s affairs.
Concerned Entities: Local authorities concerned with the children’s affairs.
Child: Every human being born alive and who is under eighteen years old.
Custodian of the Child: The person legally liable for the child or entrusted with his care.
Foster Family: Alternative family entrusted with the custody and care of the child.
Child Protection Specialist: The person licensed and appointed by the competent authority or the concerned entities – as the case may be – to preserve the rights of the child and protect him/her within the limits of his competencies as stated in this Law.
Child Abuse: Every action or omission that would lead to the harm of the child and prevent the latter’s upbringing and growth in a sound, safe and healthy manner.
Child Neglect: Failure of the parents or the custodian to take necessary actions to preserve the child’s life, as well as his/her physical, mental and moral integrity from risks and to protect his/her various rights.
Violence against Children: Deliberate use of force against any child by any individual or group that would lead to actual harm to the health, growth or survival of the child.
Best Interests of the Child: Placing the interests of the child above everything else and having priority and preference in all circumstances, regardless of the interests of other parties.
Child Pornography: Production, display, publication, possession or circulation of a picture, film or drawing through any means of communication, social media platforms or other means where the child is shown in a disgraceful manner in a sexual act or sexual show, whether such act is real, virtual or simulated.
The competent authorities and the concerned entities shall:
1- Maintain the child’s right to life, survival and development and provide all necessary opportunities to facilitate the same and grant him/her a free, secure and developed life.
2- Protect the child from all forms of neglect, exploitation and abuse and from any physical and psychological violence that exceeds the limits of the Sharia and the Law, such as the rights of the parents and their equivalents to discipline their children.
3- Raise the child in a way to adhere to his/her Islamic faith and to have pride in his/her national identity and respect for the culture of human brotherhood.
4- Protect the best interests of the child.
5- Raise awareness among children on their rights, obligations and duties in a society in which justice, equality, tolerance and moderation prevail.
6- Raise the child on the sense of morality, particularly the respect of his/her parents and family and social surroundings.
7- Spread the culture of child rights as widely as possible using appropriate means.
8- Involve the child in the aspects of community life according to his/her age, maturity and developed abilities in order to be raised on the love of work, initiatives, legitimate earning and self-reliance.
This Law shall guarantee that the child has all the rights decided thereunder and under the other legislations in force at the State and shall protect the child without discrimination because of origin, sex, home country, religion, social status or disability.
1- The natural family is the first and best environment for the upbringing of the child. The State shall guarantee its existence, preservation, protection and care in order to achieve the child’s rights and best interests. Such family may be replaced, when necessary, by the alternative family.
2- The protection of the child and his/her best interests shall have priority in all the decisions and actions taken in his/her regard. The competent authorities and the concerned entities shall work on achieving the same by taking necessary measures, namely:
a- Ensuring to meet the moral, psychological and physical needs of the child under the special circumstances of his/her age, health and family surroundings, and particularly his/her right of custody.
b- Giving the child priority of protection, care, rescue and guidance in cases of emergencies, disasters, armed conflict and any crime committed against him/her.
c- Not harming the child psychologically in all the stages of collecting evidence, investigation and trial, whether the child is a party to the case or a witness.
The child shall have the right for privacy according to public morals, taking in consideration the rights and liabilities of the custodian according to the Law.
The concerned entities liable for the implementation of the policies and programs developed by the competent authorities shall work in all the areas related to the child.
1- The child shall have the right to life and security.
2- The State shall guarantee the child’s growth, development and care according to the Law.
The child shall have the right, since birth, to have a name that does not involve humiliation or denigration of his/her dignity or that is contrary to religious beliefs and customs.
The child shall be registered in the birth register immediately after his/her birth according to the legal system prescribed in this regard.
The child shall have the right to nationality according to the provisions of the laws in force at the State.
1- The child shall have the right to parentage by his legal parents according to the laws in force at the State.
2- Each of the child’s parents or whoever having legal authority thereon shall procure the issuance of the documents proving his birth, nationality and all other documents according to the laws in force at the State.
1- The child shall have the right to express his/her opinion freely according to his/her age and maturity, commensurate with the public order and morals and with the laws in force at the State.
2- (S)he shall have the opportunity to express his/her opinion concerning the measures taken in his/her regard within the limits of the laws in force.
It shall be prohibited to expose the child to any arbitrary interference or illegal conduct in his/her life, family, home or correspondences. It shall be also prohibited to harm his/her honour or reputation. The State shall guarantee the protection of the child from all child pornography forms according to the legislations in force.
The competent authorities and the concerned entities shall:
1- Prohibit the employment of children before the age of fifteen.
2- Prohibit the economic exploitation and employment in any works that may expose the child to risk, whether due to the work nature or circumstances.
The Implementing Regulation of the Law and the Labour Law shall regulate the conditions and principles of child labour.
1- The child’s parents or their equivalents and the custodian of the child shall provide the requirements of family safety to the child within a coherent and cooperative family.
2- The child’s custodian shall assume the responsibilities and obligations entrusted to him/her in raising, caring, guiding and developing the child in the best way.
Taking in consideration the applicable Law, the child shall have the right to meet his/her natural parents and family and receive their care and to maintain personal relationships and direct contact with both of them.
The child shall be entitled to custody, breast-feeding, alimony and protection of his/her person, his/her honour, religion and property according to the laws in force at the State.
The child shall have the right to receive health services according to the laws and regulations of health care applicable in the State.
The State shall work on developing its capacities in the field of preventive, curative and mental healthcare as well as health guidance related to the health, nutrition and protection of the child.
The competent authorities and concerned entities shall provide healthcare to mothers before and after childbirth according to the legislations in force.
They shall also take the possible measures for the following:
1- Protect the child from environmental pollution hazards and damages and work on combating them.
2- Play a constructive and active role in raising awareness in the field of prevention and health guidance, particularly with respect to the areas of child health and nutrition, the benefits of breastfeeding, prevention of diseases and accidents and the harm caused by smoking, and set the policies and programs necessary for the advancement of the health media in this regard.
3- The competent authorities and concerned entities shall take necessary actions to prevent and protect the child from the use of drugs, intoxicants and stimulants, as well as all types of psychotropic substances or contribution in the production, trading or promotion thereof.
4- Support the school health system in order to play its role in the field of prevention, treatment and health guidance.
5- Prevent infectious, dangerous and chronic diseases and provide necessary vaccinations and immunisations.
6- Develop programs related to the training of the workers in the maternal and child health care and prepare them to achieve the objectives of this Law.
7- Handle psychological care including the mental, emotional, social and language development of the child.
8- Take the necessary measures for the early detection of children diagnosed with disabilities and chronic diseases.
It shall be prohibited to:
1- Sell or attempt to sell tobacco or tobacco products to children. The seller shall have the right to ask the purchaser to provide evidence of reaching the age of eighteen.
2- Smoke in public and private transportation means and indoor places in the presence of a child.
3- Sell or attempt to sell alcoholic beverages to children and any other materials posing risk to the health of the child, determined by a decision issued by the Council of Ministers.
4- Import or trade in materials that are contrary to the specifications approved in the State for the nutrition, food supplies or health or hormonal supplements or children’s toys.
The State shall provide a standard of living that is adequate for the child’s physical, mental, psychological and social development according to the Laws in force.
The children who do not have a competent breadwinner or source of income, shall have the right to be assisted by the State according to the Laws in force.
Without prejudice to the Laws on Personal Status and on the Children of Unknown Parentage, the child who is deprived of his natural family in a permanent or temporary manner shall have the right to alternative care through:
1- The foster family.
2- Public or private social welfare institutions in case the foster family is not available.
The child shall have the right to have knowledge, innovation and creativity means. For that purpose, s(he) may participate in the recreational, cultural, artistic and scientific programs that are adequate to his/her age, the public order and morals. The competent authorities and concerned entities shall set the programs necessary for the same.
It shall be prohibited to publish, display, circulate, possess or produce any visual, audio or printed works or games for children that address the child’s sexual instincts or adorn the behaviours that are contrary to the public order and morals or that would encourage abnormal behaviour.
The Implementing Regulation of this Law shall determine the places where the children are prohibited to enter as well as the rules of entrance to other places.
The Managers of the cinemas, the television broadcasting channels and other similar places set forth in the previous Article shall display in an apparent and visible place, a statement prohibiting the children to enter or watch, according to the Implementing Regulation of this Law and other regulations in force.
The telecommunications companies and internet service providers shall notify the competent authorities or the concerned entities of any child pornography materials being circulated through the social media sites and on the Internet and shall provide necessary information and data on the persons, entities or sites that circulate such material or intend to mislead the children.
The State shall form councils, associations, clubs and centres for children, specialised in the children’s cultural, artistic, scientific and physical development as well as other aspects of development.
Every child shall have the right to education and the State shall work on achieving equal opportunities for every child according to the Laws in force.
The State shall take the following measures in the field of education:
1- Prevent the children’s escape from school.
2- Promote the participation of children and their parents in the decisions related to children.
3- Ban all forms of violence in educational institutions and maintain the dignity of the children upon taking decisions or setting programs.
4- Develop the educational system including kindergartens in order to achieve its purposes of development of every child in the mental, physical, emotional, social and moral aspects.
5- Set special and structured programs for reporting and complaints in order to ensure investigation of the acts and violations to the educational rights set forth in this Law as determined by the Implementing Regulation.
Right to Protection
The following in particular shall be considered as threatening to the child or to his/her physical, psychological, moral or mental integrity, which requires his/her right to protection:
1- Loss of both parents and living without a breadwinner or tutor.
2- Child’s exposure to neglect, rejection and homelessness.
3- Obvious and continuous default in education and care.
4- Habitual child abuse.
5- Child’s exposure to exploitation or sexual abuse.
6- Child’s exposure to exploitation by illegal organisations and in organised crime, such as planting the ideas of intolerance and hatred or inciting the child to carry out acts of violence and intimidation.
7- Child’s exposure to begging or to economic exploitation.
8- Inability of the parents or custodian to provide care or to raise the child.
9- Child’s exposure to kidnapping, sale or trafficking for any purpose or to exploitation of any form.
10- Psychological or mental disability that affects the child’s ability to perception.
It shall be prohibited to endanger the mental, psychological, physical or moral integrity of the child, whether through abandonment of the child by his/her custodian, leaving him/her at a care institution without due reason, rejecting the child by his/her custodian, or refraining from treating his/her illness and handling his/her affairs.
It shall be prohibited for the custodian to expose the child to rejection, homelessness or neglect, leaving him/her without supervision or follow-up, refraining from his/her guidance, not handling his/her affairs, not enrolling him/her at an educational institution or leaving him/her without education during the compulsory education stage without due reason.
Taking into consideration Clause 2 of Article 2 hereof, it shall be prohibited to expose the child to torture, violate his/her physical integrity or commit any act involving cruelty that would affect the child’s emotional, psychological, mental or moral balance.
The following acts shall be prohibited:
1- To use or exploit a child in the filming, recording or production of pornographic materials.
2- To produce, publish, distribute or facilitate access of children to pornographic materials in any way.
3- To possess child pornography materials regardless of the intent to distribute the same.
4- To download, upload or send child pornography materials through the Internet or any other communications or IT means.
5- The custodian’s contribution to the child’s participation in the production or filming of child pornography or any other sexual acts, or his permission or assistance offered to the child in such acts.
6- To exploit the child sexually by exposing or preparing him/her for prostitution or debauchery, whether with or without pay, directly or indirectly.
The following shall be prohibited:
1- To exploit the child for begging.
2- Child labour under illegal conditions.
3- Entrust the child with an act that would hinder his/her education or harm his/her health or physical, psychological, moral or mental integrity.
1- The competent authorities and the concerned entities shall coordinate with the Ministry in order to establish child protection units aiming at developing and implementing mechanisms and child protection measures as set forth in this Law.
2- The Implementing Regulation of this Law shall determine the following:
a- Competencies and work mechanisms of the child protection units.
b- The conditions to be met by the child protection specialist.
The child protection specialist shall take oath before exercising his duties, and shall be specialised in the following:
1- Preventive intervention in all the cases where the child’s health or physical, psychological, moral or mental integrity is threatened or endangered.
2- Therapeutic intervention in all the cases of abuse, exploitation, neglect and all the cases set forth in Article 33 hereof.
The child protection specialist shall have the following powers upon performing his duties:
1- Collecting evidence about the facts covered by the reporting and attending investigation and trial sessions if necessary.
2- Entering alone or accompanied by whomever he deems convenient to any place where the child is present, with the permission of the place’s owner and the necessity to show a card proving his title.
3- Taking appropriate preventive measures concerning the child as determined by the Implementing Regulation of this Law.
4- Having recourse to social research in order to estimate the reality of the child’s situation.
1- Every person shall notify the child protection specialist or child protection units in case of anything that threatens the child’s physical, psychological, moral or mental integrity or health.
2- The notification shall be mandatory for the educators, physicians, social specialists or others entrusted with the protection, care or education of the child.
Every person who reaches the age of majority shall assist any child who asks him/her to notify the competent authorities or concerned entities about his/her suffering, the suffering of any of his/her siblings or any other child in one of the cases set forth in Article 33 hereof.
The identity of the reporter shall only be disclosed with his consent and it shall be forbidden to disclose the identity of all the parties of the incident and the witnesses in the cases of child assault or abuse, upon using the information in the analyses or media reports or upon publishing all that may reveal his identity.
The concerned and competent entities shall provide protection to the witnesses at all stages of the criminal proceedings.
Taking into consideration the provisions of Articles (47) and (51) of this Law, the child protection specialist shall, in agreement with the custodian of the child, take the necessary measures if he finds anything that threats the child’s physical, psychological, moral or mental integrity or health, as determined by the Implementing Regulation of this Law.
Taking into consideration the provisions of Article (51) of this Law, the child protection specialist shall offer the following suggestions to the child’s parents or custodian if he finds anything threatening the child’s physical, psychological, moral or mental integrity or health:
1- Keeping the child at his/her family, provided that:
a- The child’s parents or custodian commit in writing to take necessary measures to remove the risk threatening the child and keep him/her under periodic supervision by the child protection specialist.
b- The social intervention methods are regulated by the concerned entities and the competent authorities – as the case may be – by providing necessary services and social aid to the child and his/her family.
c- Necessary precautions are taken to prevent any contact between the child and all that threatens his/her physical, psychological, moral or mental integrity or health.
2- Placing the child temporarily at an alternative family or a convenient body, social, educational or health institution, whether public or private, according to the rules determined by the Implementing Regulation of this Law.
In case the child protection specialist reaches the appropriate measures in an agreement form, such agreement shall be written, read and signed by the various parties including the child who reached thirteen years old.
The specialist shall periodically follow the results of the agreed measures taken and shall decide to amend them when necessary in a way guaranteeing, as much as possible, that the child is kept in his/her family surroundings.
The child protection specialist shall notify the parents or custodian of the child who reached thirteen years old, of their right to reject the measure suggested to them.
1- The child protection specialist shall refer the matter to the entity to which he reports in order to take the convenient action in the following cases:
a- Failure to reach an agreement within fifteen days from the date of knowledge of the case.
b- Rejection of the agreement by the child’s parents or custodian or by the child who reached thirteen years old.
2- The entity to which the child protection specialist reports shall take necessary action to refer the matter to the Public Prosecution.
1- Taking into account the provisions of Articles (33), (34), (35), (36), (37) and (38), every action or omission posing a threat to the child’s life, physical, psychological, mental or moral integrity or health in a way that cannot be avoided over time, shall be considered as significant harm or imminent danger.
2- Taking into account the sanctity of the residential places, the child protection specialist shall, in case of significant harm or imminent danger on the child, and before obtaining a judicial authorisation, take the child out from the place (s)he is present in and move him/her to a safe place under his personal liability and he may refer to public authorities in this regard.
3- The child protection specialist shall obtain a judicial order to continue taking the measures set forth in Clause 2 of this Article, within 24 hours from the time of taking the child out and the competent judge shall pronounce his decision within 24 hours from the time of submittal of the request.
The child protection specialists specified by a decision from the Minister of Justice, under agreement with the Minister or the concerned entities, shall have the capacity of judicial officers as per the evidencing of the violations of this Law and the decisions and regulations issued in implementation thereof.
The Public Prosecution and judicial authorities shall have recourse to the child protection specialist for the investigations and trials involving the child.
1- Whoever is convicted of a crime of sexual assault or child pornography shall be prohibited to work in a job or position that makes him/her in direct contact with children, even if (s)he was rehabilitated.
2- The judge shall rule that whoever is convicted of a crime of sexual assault against a child shall be prohibited to reside in the area of residence of the assaulted child within a five square kilometres radius surrounding the child’s place of residence.
3- In all cases, the convicted person sentenced to imprisonment in a crime of sexual assault against a child shall not be released until after being subject, after the period of imprisonment, to psychological tests in order to ensure that (s)he is not socially endangering. In case (s)he was proved to be socially endangering, the Court shall rule to transfer him/her to a therapeutic institution after expiry of the period of imprisonment. The Implementing Regulation of this Law shall regulate the placement of the convicted person in a therapeutic institution and the procedures of study of the release requests.
A record shall be established at the Ministry in coordination with the competent authorities stating all the cases of child abuse. All that is stated in that record shall be confidential and shall not be perused unless by a permit from the Public Prosecution or the competent Court, as the case may be.
The competent authorities and the concerned entities shall coordinate with the Ministry to:
1- Determine the standards and engineering specifications related to the construction laws and the safety and security conditions that protect the child from any type of harm. The Implementing Regulation of this Law shall determine the rules necessary for the application of these standards, specifications and the exceptions thereof.
2- Set the necessary controls and procedures to protect the child safety in the public and entertainment places as well as the public transport means. The Implementing Regulation shall determine these required rules and procedures.
3- The provisions of Clauses (1) and (2) of this Article shall apply to the public and private sectors, except for all that is specifically determined in the Implementing Regulation.
The competent authorities and the concerned entities shall take the following measures:
1- Ensure the safety of the products to prevent any threaten to the child’s rights as stated in this Law and lay down marketing advertisement controls that are consistent with the child’s rights to health, survival and development.
2- Monitor the business activities in a way preventing children to be exposed to any environmental hazards or damages.
The competent authorities and concerned entities shall ensure the protection of the child from traffic accidents according to the provisions of the Traffic Law and its amending laws, particularly the following:
1- Prohibiting the seating of children under ten years old in the front seats of the vehicles of all types.
2- Developing controls concerning the use of bicycles by children.
Taking into account the provisions of the Personal Status Law, the competent Court shall, before ruling custody, request a detailed report on the social, psychological, health and criminal status of the person requesting custody or to be granted custody, or an acknowledgment stating that (s)he did not commit a crime outside the State. The Implementing Regulation shall determine the procedures of preparation of such report and acknowledgment.
Whoever violates the provisions of Clause 2 of Article (11), Articles (28), (34), (35) or Clause 2 of Article (42) of this Law shall be punished by imprisonment or a fine not less than AED 5,000 (five thousand).
Shall be punished by a fine not less than AED (5,000) five thousand and not exceeding AED (50,000) fifty thousand, whoever:
1- Violates the provisions of Article (43) hereof.
2- Prevents the child protection specialist from carrying out his duties or hinders his work.
3- Gives false information or deliberately hides the truth concerning the status of the child.
Whoever violates the provisions of Clause 2 of Article (21) hereof shall be punished by a fine not less than AED (5,000) five thousand.
Whoever violates the provisions of Clauses 1 and 3 of Article (21) hereof shall be punished by imprisonment for a period not less than three months and/or a fine not less than AED (15,000) fifteen thousand.
Whoever violates the provisions of Clause 4 of Article (21) or Article (29) hereof shall be punished by imprisonment for a period not less than six months and/or a fine not less than AED (100,000) one hundred thousand and not exceeding AED (1,000,000) one million.
Whoever violates the provisions of Clauses 1, 2, 5 and 6 of Article (37) hereof shall be punished by imprisonment for a period not less than ten years.
Whoever violates the provisions of Article (26) or Clauses 3 and 4 of Article (37) hereof shall be punished by imprisonment for a period not less than one year and a fine not less than AED (100,000) one hundred thousand Dirhams and not exceeding AED (400,000) four hundred thousand.
Whoever violates any provision of Article (27) hereof shall be punished by imprisonment for a period not less than a month and not exceeding six months and a fine not less than AED five thousand (5,000).
Whoever violates the provisions of Article (14) or (38) hereof shall be punished by imprisonment and/or a fine not less than AED (20,000) twenty thousand.
If the work endangers the life of the child who has not reached fifteen years of age or endangers his/her physical, mental or moral integrity, this shall be considered as aggravating circumstances.
Whoever violates the provisions of Article (36) hereof shall be punished by imprisonment and/or a fine not less than AED (50,000) fifty thousand.
In the application of the provisions of this Law, the claim of the perpetrator being not aware of the age of the victim may not be pleaded.
The penalties set forth in this Law shall not prejudice any other more severe penalty stipulated in another Law.
The provisions of this Law shall not prejudice any rights and protection aspects guaranteeing the child’s enjoyment of all rights and public freedoms as well as the protection and care aspects set forth in other legislations in force.
The Council of Ministers shall –upon the Minister’s suggestion –issue the Implementing Regulation of this Law within six months from the date of publication thereof in the Official Gazette.
Any provision violating or contradicting the provisions of this Law shall be abrogated.
This Law shall be published in the Official Gazette and shall enter into force three months after the date of publication thereof.
Issued by Us at the Presidential Palace in Abu Dhabi
On: 8 March 2016
Corresponding to: 28 Jumada Al-Awwal 1437 H
Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan
President of the United Arab Emirates
This Federal Law was published in the Official Gazette No. 593, p. 53.